Army AL&T magazine is USAASC’s quarterly professional journal, comprising in-depth, analytically focused articles. The magazine’s mission is to instruct members of the Army AL&T community about AL&T processes, procedures, techniques and management philosophy; it is also to disseminate information pertinent to the professional development of workforce members and others engaged in AL&T activities.
X Marks the Spot
Imagine trying to create a picture of the internet. Even if you could, it’d be out of date in seconds. Trying to visualize the cyber battlefield is roughly like that—and that’s just the beginning of planning and executing mission command for Army cyber operations. These aren’t just hard problems, they’re ‘DARPA hard.’ by Lt. Col. John Bushman, Mr. Jack Dillon, Mr. Michael Padden and Mr. Frank Pound Portraying maneuver warfare in the cyber domain is a difficult thing to do. After all, how can you show maneuver in cyberspace? There are no tangible flanks to defend, no rivers to cross and no visible military camps to target or avoid. But cyberspace presents our forces with vulnerabilities that nonetheless are critical to protect. Providing Soldiers with a common operating picture (COP) in cyberspace is imperative to planning, integrating and executing cyber operations. This so-called cyber COP must display the status of weapons, provide situational awareness of friendly and enemy cyber activity, enable command and control of cyber effects and allow collaboration between commanders. Until recently, this picture was not only tough to portray—it didn’t exist. Now, by merging computer science with military science, the cyber COP is becoming viable through a battle management system known as PlanX. With PlanX, commanders can see the cyber terrain much the same way they would view a battlefield and synchronize cyberspace effects with key related warfighting functions such as fires, intelligence, signal, information operations and electronic warfare. The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) developed the PlanX platform and plans to transition it to the Army in the next fiscal year. The platform and accompanying strategy aim for balance between equipping the cyber force with off-the-shelf capabilities to satisfy immediate operational needs and knowing that some capabilities will need to push the envelope so the Army is not buying yesterday’s technology to meet current and emerging threats. Unlike the myriad individual tools the cyber force has been fielded to date, PlanX lays a common foundation that captures the essence of the military decision-making process and equips operators with the tools needed to view cyber terrain, reason about cyber activity and fight with cyber capabilities. BRINGING CYBER INTO FOCUSDARPA’s PlanX program is working to help military cyber operators visualize the cyber battlespace and perform missions there based on an established cyber framework and a common operating picture. PlanX engineers are developing platforms that DOD will use to plan for, conduct and assess cyber warfare in a manner similar to that of kinetic warfare. (DARPA photo) GUARDING THE PERIMETER As the Army prepares to operate in a contested, multidomain arena that combines land, air, sea, space and cyber, PlanX crosses an important threshold in making cyber operational at the tactical level. For the acquisition community, it also serves as a new approach to attaining emerging cyber capabilities that are needed quickly. In developing PlanX, DARPA worked closely with the U.S. Army Cyber Protection Brigade, Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER), the assistant secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics and technology, and multiple program executive offices to ensure that the capability met operational needs for the Army’s cyber force. But unlike the existing tools in the Cyber Protection Brigade arsenal, which are used mainly for specific functions such as surveying and securing, PlanX lays an integrated foundation for executing, collaborating, planning and managing a wide range of operational cyber activities. It also integrates cyber into the fighting mindset by making it easier for Soldiers to visualize networks as key terrain they are charged to protect. To provide a common foundation and operational platform, PlanX integrates new and existing cyber tools, and enables collaboration across multiple teams operating simultaneously. Tools are selected automatically based on mission-specific plans—a vital time-saving capability in the cyber realm, where vulnerabilities can be exploited within seconds. The tools then are deployed to monitor, survey and map target networks to detect disruptions and irregularities, and determine whether those anomalies are malicious. Think of it as defending an Army unit out in the field. Just as a stray dog could break a perimeter with no malicious intent, network disruptions can also be just that: a glitch. With PlanX, the cyber force will have a common operating picture of information—portrayed through standardized icons, intuitive graphics and symbols—to illustrate network irregularities and relationships, allowing Soldiers to determine the nature of the threat and act accordingly. Perhaps even more powerful, PlanX promotes a shared understanding of cyberspace by “baselining” the networks so cyber protection teams can quickly visualize and identify anomalies. “Baselining” cyber terrain, or determining which critical assets to defend, is no different from establishing the engagement area for any defensive operation. This visualization component is also a key driver in ensuring that the capability is embraced by not only the most skilled, experienced cyber Soldiers, but by other operators as well. To make PlanX as intuitive as possible, DARPA developers sought to abstract and automate burdensome or complex tasks and functions. It also conducted training and war-gaming to enable rehearsals in virtual ranges while measuring performance and evaluating actions, so that commanders, operators and analysts can collaborate and make informed risk decisions. Focus areas within the ranges include mission rehearsal, operator training and malware analysis, which are used to test the simulations and understand the results. SAME MISSION, DIFFERENT BATTLEFIELDSoldiers with the 780th Military Intelligence Brigade conduct cyberspace operations during a training rotation at the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California, in January 2016. The Fort Meade, Maryland-based 780th was one of several cyber organizations that took part in the rotation as part of a pilot program designed to help the Army develop how it will build and employ cyber in its tactical formations. (U.S. Army photo) NOT JUST ANOTHER PRETTY FACE While PlanX is turning heads due to its capability alone, it also is being closely studied by acquisition officials, including those in the Army Rapid Capabilities Office, who believe it could serve as a model for quickly prototyping and transitioning emerging technologies. Stood up in August 2016, the Rapid Capabilities Office is focused on rapid prototyping and initial equipping of capabilities, targeting the areas of cyber, electronic warfare, survivability and positioning, navigation and timing, as well as other high-priority projects designed to enable Army operations in contested environments. The office is watching how parts of the technology could possibly be delivered as a prototype or initial build, which could mature over time through incremental improvements delivered in partnership with the Army’s acquisition and science and technology communities. Rare among military acquisition projects, PlanX fully embraced innovative development methods straight out of Silicon Valley. Take, for example, the surge weeks, “user jury” type events that spur a constant and rapid cycle of improvement. The process follows a six-week rotation, kicked off when DARPA takes the latest software build of PlanX to the Cyber Protection Brigade so commanders and operators can use and experiment with it. Their feedback informs future development sprints of PlanX by identifying and prioritizing feature requirements, which are then incorporated into the development schedule and demonstrated during the next surge week. The first three surge weeks produced almost 300 feature requests and identified bugs that brought refinements to PlanX components, including the COP, battle tracking methods, force management and threat overlays. This quick and continuous interaction between DARPA, serving as the developers, and the Cyber Protection Brigade, serving as the operators, is known in the computer gaming community as DevOps, a mashup of the terms “software development” and “information technology operations.” In the gaming world, if the operators or customers aren’t happy or if the product is not intuitive to operate, the game is not getting played and the online reviews are largely negative. This constant feedback pushes game developers—and other cutting-edge companies such as Facebook—to change code daily. Sometimes, the user is unaware of those changes. Other times, the changes are announced as an upgrade. Either way, DevOps represents constant and rapid change based on steady interaction with operators. DARPA is also spreading this mindset in the Army development community by conducting regular PlanX App Boot Camps, where software engineers demonstrate the ease of building and integrating tools within the PlanX system. Also, recognizing that PlanX is an operational tool that will need to work in a system-of-systems environment, DARPA participated in Cyber Guard and Cyber Flag, annual exercises aimed at dealing with cyber threats, and Hackathon, a weeklong exercise held in Arlington, Virginia, to learn how to detect unfriendly network intrusions, for additional feedback on PlanX. Not stopping there, DARPA also brought in third-party red teams to hack the software, giving a fresh set of eyes the opportunity to find new vulnerabilities. IDENTIFY, DEFEND AND PROTECTBy incorporating information like this screenshot, which shows a view of the battlespace and the status of executed COAs, PlanX allows warfighters to plan and conduct cyber missions based on the defense of key cyber components such as mail and file servers, routers and gateways, and provides visibility into the status of those components. (Image courtesy of DARPA) SET FOR RELEASE With a planned transition in September to the Program Executive Office for Enterprise Information Systems’ (PEO EIS) Project Manager for Installation Information Infrastructure Communications and Capabilities (PM I3C2), PlanX will soon graduate from prototype to program. It will be part of the Army’s Defensive Cyber Operations Mission Planning solution, which provides an application-based, scalable, secure warfighting capability to support cyberspace operations, mission command and planning at the global, regional and local levels. The transition represents a significant milestone for the Army. PlanX was built with a “DARPA hard”—or extremely difficult to achieve—hypothesis: to determine if a system could abstract and interact with cyberspace in such a way that users could apply the military science of maneuver-centric warfare to cyber operations. Now, with only a few months remaining before the program transitions to the acquisition arena, the Army is set to gain a system that could serve as its baseline mission command system for cyberspace operations. Technology maturity will be key to the success of the PlanX transition, and PM I3C2 has been engaged in the program since its beginning. An initial technology readiness level assessment was conducted with Carnegie Mellon University in the first quarter of FY17, and PM I3C2 will continue to assess the technology throughout the next several months with key stakeholders by leveraging developmental and operational assessments to ensure that the technology is ready for transition to production and deployment. Another critical aspect of the transition is requirements planning and documentation. Recognizing that the development of information systems is quite different from that of a major weapon system, the Army is using the proven Information Technology (IT) Box approach for its defensive cyber operations capability requirements. This construct provides the flexibility needed to meet the challenges of cyber. The IT Box breaks down the information system initial capabilities document into deliverable increments, based on requirements definition packages, and uses periodic capability drop documents to make changes to a baseline product. This approach allows the Army to adjust and upgrade PlanX and related capabilities more quickly to keep pace with evolving technologies and threats. SURGING FORWARDArmy Cyber Protection Team members use PlanX at a recent surge week, one of the development methods used to create and improve the system. First used by software and system developers in Silicon Valley, surge weeks are designed to gather user feedback about system functionality. That feedback is used to identify and prioritize new requirements, which then are incorporated into the development schedule and demonstrated during the next surge week. (U.S. Army photo) CONCLUSION With global threats changing rapidly, the Army recognizes the need for increased readiness in cyberspace, including across DOD’s Cyber Mission Force. PlanX supports several of Army Cyber Command’s operational priorities for designing, building, delivering and integrating capabilities for the future fight. Going forward, PlanX will likely inform future offensive cyber operations capabilities as well. At the same time, PlanX shows how Army acquisition can balance initial capability to satisfy requirements while also laying the groundwork to adopt emerging technologies quickly. Industry already does this, and the Army’s broader cyber community is watching and listening. With DARPA’s agility setting the stage for further improvements at PEO EIS, tomorrow’s Soldiers could have a cyber COP and common foundation that is just as familiar as physical terrain—and corresponding capabilities to defend, fight and win on this newest field of battle. For more information, go to http://www.eis.army.mil/; http://www.darpa.mil/; http://www.arcyber.army.mil/Pages/ArcyberHome.aspx; and http://rapidcapabilitiesoffice.army.mil/. LT. COL. JOHN BUSHMAN is the deputy chief of fires for U.S. Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER). He holds an M.A. in military history from Norwich University and a B.A. in history from the Virginia Military Institute, and is a graduate of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College and the Advanced Military Studies Program at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. MR. JACK DILLON is the Cyber Programs chief within the Army Rapid Capabilities Office. He was formerly the director of advanced concepts and technology for ARCYBER. He holds a B.S. in civil engineering from the United States Military Academy at West Point. MR. MICHAEL PADDEN is the project manager for I3C2 within PEO EIS. He holds an M.S. in national resource strategy rom the Industrial College of the Armed Forces, an M.S. in industrial engineering from Wayne State University and a B.S. in industrial technology from Eastern Michigan University. A member of the Army Acquisition Corps, he is Level III certified in program management and engineering, and Level I certified in production, quality and manufacturing and in test and evaluation. MR. FRANK POUND is the DARPA program manager for PlanX. He has a B.S. in computer science from Florida Atlantic University. Mr. Pound served on active duty with the U.S. Marine Corps from 1989 to 1994 and as a Reservist from 1995 to 2004 with a tour in Baghdad in 2003. This article is scheduled to be published in the April – June 2017 issue of Army AL&T Magazine. Subscribe to Army AL&T News, the premier online news source for the Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (AL&T) Workforce. 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A Glimpse From Above
OSD Logistics Fellows take on staff assignments and training in a collaborative learning program that allows participants to view the DOD enterprise logistics community from the highest level. by Mr. Bryan L. Jerkatis A friend and retired U.S. Air Force command chief often used an analogy with young troops to describe the differences between their worldviews and those of their leadership. “Your view of the ground [truth] depends upon the height of the branch in the tree upon which you are standing,” he would say. Similarly, the parable of “The Blind Men and the Elephant” teaches us that seeing only one side of something poses limitations. Both are also true of a stovepiped career path. NAVIGATING CAPITOL HILLThrough visits to Congress, OSD logistics fellows gain insight into the legislative process and attend national-level forums. (Image by OGphoto/istock) For the nearly 3 million men and women who make up DOD, seldom is the opportunity available to spend invaluable time higher in the tree. Fortunately, the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Logistics and Materiel Readiness (OASD (L&MR)) has a fellows program for just that purpose, in which I participated from July 2015 to July 2016. The Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) Logistics Fellows program provides the unique opportunity to be part of policy formulation and DOD-wide oversight. My time in the OSD focused on the oversight of supply chain policy and matters ranging from environmental sustainability to prepositioned war reserve materiel. Fellows are fortunate to travel and tour both the public and private sectors to observe, contrast and learn firsthand how logistics operations compare in private industry and benchmark best practices. Through visits to Congress, fellows also gain exposure and insight into the legislative process. In addition, they attend national-level forums and engage in collaborative efforts with industry partners. I found these opportunities, focused predominantly on learning and growth, to be among the most valuable aspects of the program and unparalleled career experiences. HIGHER PERSPECTIVEOSD Logistics Fellows become part of policy formulation and DOD-wide oversight. They study the public and private sectors to observe, contrast and learn firsthand how logistics operations compare in private industry and to benchmark best practices. (Photo by icholakov/iStock) Depending on their assignments, fellows may have a chance to visit and become familiar with other government agencies as well. Perhaps even more important, the fellowship allows participants to observe and interact with appointed and career senior executives and flag officers, including one-on-one meetings with senior logistics leaders in the military departments, Joint Staff, OSD and agencies. LOGISTICS FELLOWS AS STAFF SPECIALISTS The insights and “big picture” knowledge to be gained as a logistics fellow are virtually endless, and the fellows themselves determine much of their training and class agendas. When not directly engaged in a formal training event, a fellow’s primary job is largely like that of any other staff specialist within the Office of the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, to whom the ASD (L&MR) reports. Fellows are selected, in part, based on experiential background and OSD needs, and they subsequently receive work assignments to carry out on DOD’s behalf. During my fellowship, I worked to resolve a longstanding DOD logistics policy challenge regarding prepositioned war reserve materiel. I had considerable leeway to gain needed expertise, formulate a recommendation and lead the organization to a DOD-wide solution. The assignment involved working closely with OSD staff and the Joint Staff, combatant commands, military services and agencies. I drafted a new DOD directive in accordance with the secretary’s congressionally mandated obligation to provide prepositioning policy, then headed up its editing and staffing efforts across all DOD components. Other fellows led financial accountability program initiatives, participated in department-level awards processes, led worldwide maintenance symposia and were part of source selection committees, among other DOD-level initiatives. REVVING THE SUPPLY CHAINU.S. Air Force Staff Sgt. Ray Medrano of the 39th Logistics Readiness Squadron moves cargo in October 2016 in the supply warehouse at Incirlik Air Base, Turkey. The author’s fellowship in the OSD focused on the oversight of supply chain policy on matters ranging from environmental sustainability to prepositioned war reserve materiel. (U.S. Air Force photo by Senior Airman John Nieves Camacho) INDIVIDUAL TRAINING PLANS At the beginning of the program, fellows participate in the development of their individual training plans. They work within a predetermined budget to set priorities for training, conference attendance, field and site visits and other opportunities. Then they work with mentors who coach them to ensure that they meet their core objectives, and ultimately finalize their agendas and plans for approval. Fellows have chosen to tour other DOD components, such as the U.S. Transportation Command, and to see the private-sector distribution hubs of leading companies such as FedEx Corp. and Wal-Mart Stores Inc., then compare their business practices with those of the Defense Logistics Agency or the services. Fellows also have chosen to attend public-private partnership courses such as those offered by the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Georgetown University, among others. Each class of fellows can tailor its individual training to its own unique needs and interests. FELLOWS FOR LIFE The logistics fellows program lasts 12 months, but the fellowship continues. Fellows share a common bond for the duration of their careers and beyond, forming a support structure and facing many and diverse challenges together. The program creates lifelong friendships among logistics professionals and builds professional networks that continue for as long as they want. FELLOWS FOR LIFEOSD Logistics Fellows return to their sponsoring organizations or follow-on assignments with stronger management skills, technical expertise and networks that span DOD logistics. (Image by LobodaPhoto/istock) I found the fellowship to be an opportunity to make new friends, reconnect with old ones and develop a vast network that I’ll have for the rest of my career and life. Moreover, the fellows program has a decades-long history, giving the fellows an enduring place in OSD logistics tradition. CONCLUSION Having completed the program, fellows return to their sponsoring organizations or follow-on assignments with stronger management skills, technical expertise and networks that span DOD logistics—not to mention the experience that each class gains of providing valuable feedback on how to improve the program and maximize its benefit for both DOD and the individual participants. Ultimately, training evaluations are used to convey what fellows have learned and achieved to their home organizations. American journalist Norman Cousins, in reflecting upon the Apollo space program, was quoted as saying: “What was most significant about the lunar voyage was not that men set foot on the moon but that they set eye on the Earth.” The OSD logistics fellows program provides DOD logisticians with not only a rich experiential odyssey but, perhaps more important, the chance to gain a deeper understanding of the OSD perspective and how it affects the entire enterprise. For more information, go to http://www.acq.osd.mil/log/LMR/fellows_program.html. CLASS OF 2015-16The author, second from left, was part of the OSD Logistics Fellows Class of 2015-2016, photographed at the Pentagon in March 2016. Also photographed are, from left, Lt. Col. Edward Hogan, fellow; Col. Dennis Dabney, military deputy to the DASD; Paul Blackwell, DASD Supply Chain Integration (SCI) and fellows program coordinator; Dee Reardon, DASD SCI; Hon. David Berteau, ASD (L&MR); Lisa Roberts, deputy to the DASD for Transportation Policy (TP); Adam Yearwood, DASD TP and fellows program coordinator; and fellows Renee Hubbard, Defense Logistics Agency; and Stanley McMillian, Defense Contract Management Agency. MR. BRYAN L. JERKATIS is deputy director of logistics for the 635th Supply Chain Operations Wing, Scott Air Force Base, Illinois. He holds an M.S. in national security studies from Air University, a master of public administration from Troy University and a B.S. in business management from Southern Illinois University Carbondale. This article is scheduled to be published in the April – June 2017 issue of Army AL&T Magazine. Subscribe to Army AL&T News, the premier online news source for the Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (AL&T) Workforce. Related posts: Lessons for the Long Haul Integrating Army Medicine Life Saving Life Cycle Management Army Fielding New Joint Medical Logistics Tool
Keeping Contracts from Crashing
When reality strikes in contract administration for Army helicopters, DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford fills in the gaps with real-time information and critical multifunctional expertise. by Maj. Rob Massey and Staff Sgt. Daniel Martin In every contracting course and every contracting office, you hear a familiar sentiment: “The perfect contract is just a modification away.” Yet even after incorporating that modification, circumstances and events inevitably will require input and intervention from the organization charged to administer the contract. Enter the Defense Contract Management Agency (DCMA), an organization responsible for providing contract management support to some of the most complicated contracts across DOD. A case study is the Army’s contract for the UH/HH-60 Black Hawk utility helicopter. Within DCMA, the contract management office (CMO) at DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford ensures that the Army receives a high-quality product that conforms to the contract. DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft essentially is the last line of defense between the warfighter and an inferior helicopter. Complicated aviation contracts, like the one for the Black Hawk—with the latest model entering its 15th year of production—often require expertise that is rare in the acquisition community. DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft, in Stratford, Connecticut, is able to manage the nuances of aviation-centric contracts by employing some of the best-trained and most experienced military test pilots and aviation ground support personnel available in DOD. One of DCMA’s 46 contract management offices, the one in Stratford has existed in various capacities since the 1960s to provide support for defense contracts awarded to Sikorsky, the manufacturer of a half-dozen rotary-wing platforms including the Black Hawk. Originally Sikorsky Aircraft, the company has been an element of Lockheed Martin Corp. since November 2015. DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft provides contract oversight and flight operations support to multiple contracts that together combine to produce over 2,500 flying hours annually—more than any other office within DCMA. BATTING A THOUSANDMarine Col. Jack Perrin, left, commander of DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford, Army Col. Billy Jackson, PEO Aviation’s project manager for utility helicopters, and Daniel C. Schultz, president of Sikorsky, display a plaque presented to the acquisition team to mark the delivery of the 1,000th Black Hawk M-model in October 2016. Close cooperation, including co-location, between DCMA military and civilian staff and the contractor results in quick response times and efficient delivery. (Photo courtesy of Stuart Walls, Woodstock Studio) MANY PLAYERS, ONE TEAM Multiply the complexities of contracting by the complexities of a military helicopter, and you get an idea of the diversity of skills that DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft requires to operate successfully. Within DCMA, government ground representatives (GGRs) are responsible for developing and implementing surveillance plans to support the contract. These comprehensive plans allow GGRs, along with quality assurance personnel, to balance resources with contract risk to ensure that the government routinely inspects the most important tasks performed by the contractor. These experts bring an aviation background to the contract administration process, not only ensuring a high-quality, conforming helicopter but also allowing them to manage the contractor’s flight operations, which is critical to ensuring a safe work environment for both government and contractor personnel. The GGR’s role in contract administration is important to reducing risk to mission, troops and funds. The functions delegated to DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft under Part 42 of the Federal Acquisition Regulation enable the Army and the contractor to continue production in those instances that the contract could not or did not foresee. On the Army’s most recent Black Hawk production contract, DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft supports critical post-award contracting functions. Some of the more important are ensuring contractual compliance with quality and safety requirements; engineering surveillance; reviewing requests for deviation; and maintaining surveillance of flight operations at the contractor’s facilities. To adequately support these and many other efforts, DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft leverages the collective experience of quality assurance personnel, technical engineers, industrial specialists and program integrators. The fruits of these specialists’ efforts are evident almost daily in large and small ways. Across every tactical operating center and command post in the Army, you will hear the words, “Who else needs to know?” A smooth flow of communication is one of the primary responsibilities of program integrators at DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford. Program integrators lead integrated project teams that bring all stakeholders and functional areas to the table to address contract challenges in a timely manner. TESTING, TESTINGChief Warrant Officer 4 Vance Corey, a government flight acceptance pilot and government flight representative with DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford, completes a government flight acceptance test on a UH-60M Black Hawk helicopter in Stratford, Connecticut. DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft’s experienced military test pilots help the contract management office perform its key function as the last line of defense between Soldiers and a helicopter that doesn’t perform as needed. (Photo courtesy of Maj. Rob Massey, DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford) Program integrators have direct access to the contractor’s facility, including work as government acceptance pilots. Furthermore, the relationship between DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft and its supported contractor translates to close cooperation that not only helps build the team but also allows potential discrepancies in the production and test flight processes to surface quickly, preventing problems from developing and quality from slipping. The program integrators thus can provide rapid feedback to the Army customer. Last year, during a routine weekly integrated product team meeting, the prime contractor brought to DCMA’s attention that it was no longer able to access required Army publications to support the contract effort because of changes in the Army’s forms and publication distribution process. This issue affected the contractor’s employees worldwide, including pilots and maintainers, who needed access to technical publications, forms and records. The program support team at DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft stepped in immediately to resolve the issue, working with all parties involved to establish procedures that would enable the contractor to request updated publications and forms in an organized and efficient manner through appointed government sponsors. CONNECTIONS ARE KEY In addition to the support DCMA provides to each individual contract delegated to it, the organization also can leverage a vast network of CMOs to support contract administration with skilled oversight. By tapping into this network of CMOs, DCMA can work across major contract efforts to solve problems. DCMA units work closely with the procuring contracting officer of the organization that delegated the contract’s administration. In the case of the Black Hawk contract, that organization is ACC – Redstone of the U.S. Army Contracting Command (ACC). However, several other contracts awarded by DOD organizations also influence and sometimes complicate production of the Black Hawk. This is where relationships among CMOs can be especially useful, in fact critical to managing contract risk. Recently, for example, Sikorsky had to return an aircraft engine to the subcontractor for additional servicing and testing before installation. Upon completion, the engine was to be rushed back to Sikorsky’s production facility. When errors in the shipping paperwork delayed the return shipment, program integrators from DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft intervened and worked with a sister office that oversees the subcontractor to fix the errors, ensuring timely delivery and preventing any production delays. There’s no such thing as autopilot when it comes to complex contract administration, including the post-award phase. Post-award contracting requires daily and sometimes aggressive efforts on the part of the CMO. Nonconformances in the production process, even those that may seem insignificant at the time, can manifest themselves as major costs and safety consequences later. As an example, recently Sikorsky discovered that a grounding cable connected to the helicopters’ windshield wipers had been installed incorrectly. While the discrepancy posed no flight safety risk, DCMA and the contractor agreed to rework the discrepancy to prevent the potential early deterioration of the component. This decision ultimately will help the Army save on replacement costs. While contract administration represents its own phase in the contracting process, DCMA is also equipped to support other contract phases, with CMOs providing the contracting officer with valuable feedback on a contractor’s performance based on their observations from walking the production line and interacting with the contractor’s functional leadership on a daily basis. Furthermore, having navigated the challenges of a contract action firsthand, the CMO is well-equipped to provide input to a follow-on contract and prevent repeat performance issues. A MULTIFUNCTIONAL TEAMThe DCMA M-model Black Hawk team gathers in October 2016 in front of the 1,000th aircraft delivered to the Army: from left, Chief Warrant Officer 5 Mike Bobkoskie, chief of flight operations; Maj. Rob Massey, program integrator for the M-model Black Hawk; Kathy Agosto, administrative contracting officer; and Chief Warrant Officer 4 Mike Tobin, government flight acceptance pilot and deputy program integrator. (Photo courtesy of Maj. Rob Massey, DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford) CONCLUSION When Gen. Mark A. Milley assumed duties as the Army’s 39th chief of staff in August 2015, readiness was at the top of his priority list. Ensuring equipment readiness is no small undertaking, and for the Black Hawk, it extends well beyond the program managers in the Utility Helicopters Project Office of the Program Executive Office (PEO) for Aviation. Contract administration is anything but routine. The support that DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft – Stratford provides allows the project office to fulfill its charter: to provide warfighters with the best equipment to meet their operational needs while actively managing all life cycle aspects of the program. For more information, contact the DCMA chief of public affairs at email@example.com or go to www.dcma.mil. MAJ. ROB MASSEY is the program integrator with DCMA Sikorsky Aircraft for the Army’s UH-60M Black Hawk Program. He holds an MBA from the University of Rochester’s Simon Business School and a B.S. in pre-law from the United States Military Academy at West Point. He is Level II certified in contracting and a member of the Army Acquisition Corps. STAFF SGT. DANIEL MARTIN is the government ground representative for the Army Program Team. He has 14 years of experience in aviation maintenance and operations. He holds certifications in aircraft weight and balance, quality assurance, occupational safety and health, and hazardous materials transportation. This article is scheduled to be published in the April – June 2017 issue of Army AL&T Magazine. Subscribe to Army AL&T News, the premier online news source for the Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (AL&T) Workforce. Related posts: Customer contact Corralling Contracts Reaching Way Back Speed Contracting
Faces of the Force: James “Jay” Clark
COMMAND/ORGANIZATION: Architectural Branch, Civil Structures Division, Engineering Directorate, U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville TITLE: Architect YEARS OF SERVICE IN WORKFORCE: 32 DAWIA CERTIFICATIONS: Level II in facilities engineering EDUCATION: Master of architecture and bachelor of architecture, Oklahoma State University; registered architect AWARDS: Commander’s Award for Civilian Service; Employee of the Year (2), U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville, Alabama; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Architect of the Year Excellence by design By Susan L. Follett What began as a summer job with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) turned into a career for James “Jay” Clark, thanks to a boss’s encouragement and an early assignment that provided a young architect the opportunity to do more than just design restrooms. Clark started with USACE in 1982 while he was in college. “I only expected to be there for that one summer,” he said. “But I received a nice letter of commendation for the work I had done, plus my boss had told me he really wanted me back the next summer, so I reapplied and came back the following year.” After a couple of summers, the Army offered Clark a temporary position at a higher level than most young architects. “Also, I had been involved in actual design projects, not just doing toilet details like would have been the case at a large architectural or engineering firm,” he said. “Even before I graduated, I was put in charge of a project at Fort Sill, Oklahoma, to develop final working drawings.” Much of Clark’s work over the past 30 years has been in standard designs for several types of facilities, including physical fitness facilities, child development centers, school-age centers, youth centers and fire stations. “Developing these standards has led to major improvements in the quality of life for Soldiers and their families across the Army, while at the same time conserving taxpayer dollars,” he noted. UPON FURTHER REVIEWJay Clark reviews architectural drawings at the U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center, Huntsville. (Photo by Debra Valine, U.S. Army Engineering and Support Center Public Affairs) He was also involved in establishing centralized procurement of furniture for unaccompanied housing, providing a uniform level of quality and durability across the Army and reducing the amount of money the Army spends on furniture. His work has taken him to physical fitness facilities in Germany, DOD schools in Puerto Rico and planning meetings in Alaska, as well as sites across the United States for a wide variety of projects. He credits his career longevity to that diversity and to the satisfaction of a job well done. “I think what is most memorable for me now are the facilities that were built in the last 10 years to the standards I developed,” Clark said. Around 2000, he was involved in a complete overhaul of the standard design for physical fitness facilities, providing uniform criteria, guidance and conceptual plans similar to those found in college and municipal fitness facilities. Following the revision, he took part in the design and construction of the Aquatics Training Center at Fort Bliss, Texas, working with the design-build contractor, users and the Little Rock District of the Corps of Engineers. It’s not exactly your dad’s gym: The center has three different pools—with color-changing LED bulbs for the underwater lighting—as well as a half-court basketball court and a rock climbing feature with waterfalls. “I find it very rewarding to visit those facilities now that they’re completed—to hear all of the positive feedback and to hear from the facility managers how popular the new facility has become, mainly due to a number of the features that I incorporated within my standards.” One of the biggest changes he has seen over the past four decades is in technology. “We used to draw on Mylar sheets using plastic lead in our mechanical pencils. Everything was done by hand.” Clark was one of the first architects in the Corps to use computer-aided design and drafting (CADD) when the organization introduced it in the mid-1980s, and he used CADD to create the first standard designs. “In fact, to make the drawings look better, I created the drawings on CADD and the verbiage on a word-processing type of computer, and stuck the text onto the drawings with clear sheets.” The other noteworthy change Clark has seen is the role of the architect in USACE. “When I started back in the Tulsa [Oklahoma] District in 1982, they had just created the architectural section, and we only had one or two licensed architects. The role of the architect within USACE at that time was also not well-known or defined. Over the years, the value of the architect to a product team has become much more apparent and accepted.” In spring 2016, he applied for a temporary promotion to serve as chief of the newly formed Interior Design Branch in the Civil Structures Division at Huntsville. Over the summer, he applied for the permanent position and got the job. The new role represents a big change, managing nearly 30 interior designers and handling architectural designs, criteria and review, but it is one that Clark takes on without hesitation. “When I started here, architecture wasn’t a common profession within the Corps. Over my years here, I have helped grow the role. Now I feel it’s time for me to give back. Interior design has not had a predominant role in the Corps, and I’m really committed to this great group of designers and to changing that culture, like the architects did.” This article was originally published in the January – March 2017 issue of Army AL&T Magazine. 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Avoiding pitfalls when acquiring systems for unmanned and cyber warfare. by Ms. Jill Iracki Today’s ever-changing battlefield and rapid advances in technology call for systems that are more intelligent, independent and robust than ever. From robotics and manned-unmanned teaming to artificial intelligence to cyber and electromagnetic warfare, it is vital that the Army acquisition process effectively deliver technologically sophisticated systems to meet the threat. Equally important, however, is an acquisition workforce that is fully aware of how to develop these systems for success—for example, by applying the necessary cyber protections and understanding the system’s complexities before testing and training, and then providing the right training to the Soldier-user. The Acquisition Lessons Learned Portal (ALLP) gives the Army acquisition community a forum to share lessons on how, specifically, to deliver successful systems and what pitfalls to avoid. The following lessons learned reflect the experiences and knowledge of project management office (PMO) staff and other acquisition stakeholders in unmanned systems and cybersecurity. TRAINING FOR UNMANNED SYSTEMS LL_241: As systems become more complex and interface with other systems, training is critical to fully and effectively employ the system on the battlefield. Background The initial operational test and evaluation operators for one unmanned aircraft system (UAS) received general training on the system, but the training did not specify certain key aspects of effectively employing the system in executing the mission, such as how to conduct reconnaissance properly. Additionally, the training omitted how to interface with the ground unit the operators were supporting—that is, how to communicate what the UAS was seeing to someone on the ground. These training deficits, all of which were avoidable, had a measurable effect on mission success and made it harder to demonstrate hardware capabilities at a high operational tempo (OPTEMPO). Recommendation Establish clearly in advance the types and levels of experience that Soldier participants will need to fully employ the system in testing and evaluation, such as missile range certification, radio communications and fundamentals of reconnaissance. CRITICAL TRAININGU.S. Army Spc. Charles Shrontz of 91st Cavalry Regiment, 173rd Airborne Brigade, tracks and monitors flight hours for an RQ-11 Raven UAV. As systems become more complex and interface with other systems, training is critical. (U.S. Army photo by Visual Information Specialist Paolo Bovo) LL_233: Use of ill-prepared test participants and immature systems can adversely affect test results and conclusions. Background Trainee operators of an ancillary developmental system were ill-prepared under most circumstances to demonstrate tactically realistic interaction as a part of a system of systems. The operators did not communicate and interact effectively with other parts of the maneuver force, at times hindering the manned-unmanned teaming being demonstrated. Specifically, they often were unable to cooperatively perform surveillance, target detection, target acquisition and engagement, which unfairly biased the test results by suggesting inadequacies in the primary system under test. Only expert analysis made it clear that the results were an anomaly. High OPTEMPO for operational units and scarcity of resources often create competing testing priorities. In such cases, it is necessary to determine the best possible alternative in terms of available tactical units and equipment. Recommendation Insist on using only test participants that are at readiness level 1 or fully mission-qualified in their respective roles, to obtain the most accurate and unbiased test results. LL_838: The integration of a particular sensor on a UAS posed unique training challenges. Roles and responsibilities must be clearly defined between project managers (PMs) to avoid such challenges. Background The acquisition strategy for the sensor specified that the training would be the responsibility of the platform PM with close support from the payload PM. The training strategy for the sensor consisted of UAS training packages provided by the payload PM for integration into new equipment training (NET) and institutional training center curriculum. Over a year, the sensor team observed a decrease in the tactical use of the sensor. After-action reports from fielded units confirmed a limited understanding of how to operate the radar. This was a reflection of the limited sensor training provided to the payload operator—three hours of instruction in the UAS NET. The sensor team that provided contractor training support to the UAS NET events had encountered difficulty getting dedicated resources, such as flight time, to conduct sensor training. The team observed that radar training for UAS operators was a lower priority than training for other aspects of operating the UAS and therefore was assigned a smaller window of opportunity, which poor weather could narrow further. This training deficit at the UAS operator course for Military Occupational Specialty 15W (unmanned aircraft systems operator) stemmed in part from an improper categorization of sensor system training tasks. The Army included them in the 2000 series; that meant they were taught exclusively through presentations in the academic setting of advanced individual training (AIT), where Soldiers received just an overview of the sensor instead of hands-on instruction in operating or commanding the payload in a realistic environment. Recommendation The payload PM needs to assert more emphasis on training rather than allowing the platform PM to direct sensor training activities. In particular, the payload PM should: Continue to use embedded trainers to support NET activities. Work with the platform PM to get dedicated sensor training time during NET. Work with the platform PM to increase the number of hours of sensor training conducted during fielding and possibly expand the current training curriculum. Investigate and address current simulator shortfalls with the Program Executive Office for Simulation, Training and Instrumentation and all stakeholders, as incorporating the radar simulator may improve training. Engage all stakeholders to address re-categorizing sensor training tasks to series 1000 tasks, to enhance the Soldiers’ sensor training experience in AIT. FINDING THE RIGHT TESTERSArmy Pvt. Aleasha Stanley, an advanced individual training student with the Maritime and Intermodal Training Department, operates an individual crane simulator in May 2016 at Fort Eustis, Virginia. The types and levels of experience that Soldiers will need to fully employ systems in testing and evaluation must be established clearly in advance to avoid use of ill-prepared test participants and immature systems. (U.S. Air Force photo by Staff Sgt. Natasha Stannard) CYBERSECURITY LL_540: Institute baseline cybersecurity requirements as a condition of contract award for appropriate acquisitions. Background Baseline cybersecurity refers to first-level information and security measures used to deter unauthorized disclosure, loss or compromise of information. Basic protections, such as updated virus protection, multiple-factor logical access, methods to ensure data confidentiality and current security software patches, are broadly accepted across the government and the private sector as ways to reduce a significant percentage of cyber risks. Ensuring that the people, processes and technology with access to at-risk assets are employing baseline requirements raises the level of cybersecurity across the federal enterprise. Often, cybersecurity requirements are expressed in terms of compliance with broadly stated standards and are in a section of the contract that is not part of the technical description of the product or service. Doing so leaves too much ambiguity as to which cybersecurity measures are actually required in the delivered item. Recommendation For acquisitions that present cyber risks, the government should do business only with organizations that meet such baseline requirements in both their own operations and in the products and services they deliver. The government should express the baseline in the technical requirements for the acquisition, and should include performance measures to ensure that the contractor maintains the baseline and identifies risks throughout the lifespan of the product or service acquired. Because of resource constraints and the varying risk profiles of federal acquisitions, the government should take an incremental, risk-based approach to increasing cybersecurity requirements in its contracts beyond the baseline. As a preliminary matter, cybersecurity requirements need to be clearly and specifically articulated within the requirements of the contract. First-level protective measures are typically employed as part of the routine course of doing business. The cost of not using basic cybersecurity measures would be a significant detriment to contractor and federal business operations, resulting in reduced system performance and the potential loss of valuable information. ENSURING INFORMATION ASSURANCEInformation technology specialists Patrick Noel, Stephen Washicosky and Brian Medwetz, from left, configure and test a software support pilot system at Tobyhanna Army Depot, Pennsylvania. Information assurance and cybersecurity SMEs must be active members of a system’s design and development team as soon as a networking requirement is determined for the system. (Photo by Steve Grzezdzinski, Tobyhanna Army Depot) LL_742: Per Army Regulation (AR) 25-2, information assurance (IA) certification is a requirement for information systems seeking to network in Army activities. Programs need to develop IA strategies very early during the design process to avoid cost and schedule impacts. Background During the requirements development phase and subsequent build of one electronic warfare system, the developer did not address IA. Consequently, an IA assessment performed after the system was developed determined that the system’s security posture did not meet Army IA regulations or National Security Agency (NSA) requirements. Had an IA subject matter expert (SME) engaged with the developer from the start, the SME would have determined that the operating system (OS) and the hardware and processor being developed and integrated into the system were not on the NSA pre-approved list and lacked a validated encryption algorithm. Not using the NSA pre-approved OS or hardware does not mean a certification cannot be obtained; however, it does mean that NSA must evaluate and certify the system, which adds a significant amount of time to the schedule. In addition, NSA findings could require that the system undergo re-engineering efforts to correct any encryption or OS security issues. This effort could result in invasive hardware changes or simple software modifications. Consequently, the PMO expected the program to experience schedule delays, adding high risk to meeting program objectives. The PMO estimated that it would take 6-10 months to do initial scans on the system and get chief information officer/G-6 validation. Getting into and through the NSA certification process with no issues could take up to 12 months, while any fixes required to achieve certification could add time to the schedule to implement and test. The original equipment manufacturer estimated that it could take 18-24 months to implement a hardware change. The system would then have to be re-evaluated, which could add another 6-12 months. Recommendation As soon as a networking requirement is determined for the system, IA and cybersecurity SMEs need to be active members of the design and development team. The IA SME will incorporate AR 25-2 requirements into the system design strategy and assist the program with determining the timeline for certification and accreditation (C&A) efforts for planning program objectives. Validating IA controls (per DOD Instruction 8500.2) during the system development phase benefits the program by eliminating re-engineering efforts, allowing C&A efforts to be successfully completed while meeting timeline objectives. When using communication security (COMSEC) material, engage PMO network enablers (PMO Net E) in the initial development stages as directed by the assistant secretary of the Army for acquisition, logistics and technology to ensure that COMSEC methods are NSA-approved. PMO Net E are the designated technical experts and offer COMSEC-approved devices at no cost. Using technology that is not COMSEC-approved will require NSA certification, which could be a lengthy process and pose a high risk to program objectives if NSA-approved techniques are not used. For more information on these and other Army Lessons Learned within the ALLP go to https://apps.aep.army.mil/ALLP; Common Access Card is required to log in. DEFINING ROLESSoldiers from 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 82nd Airborne Division, unmanned aircraft systems platoon prepare to start an RQ7-B Shadow at Fort A.P. Hill,Virginia in October 2016. To properly integrate sensors or other additions onto a system, the payload PM and the platform PM must have their roles and responsibilities clearly defined. (U.S. Army photo by Sgt. Steven Galimore) MS. JILL IRACKI is an operations research analyst with the U.S. Army Materiel Systems Analysis Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. She holds an M.S. in applied and computational mathematics from Johns Hopkins University and a B.A. in mathematics from Notre Dame of Maryland University. She is Level II certified in engineering. This article will be published in the April – June 2017 issue of Army AL&T Magazine. Subscribe to Army AL&T News, the premier online news source for the Acquisition, Logistics, and Technology (AL&T) Workforce. Related posts: GROUND TRUTH Ground Truth: Addressing Cybersecurity through Army Lessons Learned DRIVING SMALL BUSINESS SUCCESS No One Would Be More Proud
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